Welcome to the exciting world of error handling in Python! Imagine building a blog that's running smoothly, with users signing up and creating posts. But wait a minute, what if something unexpected happens? Like a user trying to use an email that's already taken? That's where exceptions come in!
Exception handling is one of the most important parts of building an app. It helps us to keep things running smoothly and fix problems faster. And we get to decide what to do with them. Maybe, we show a friendly error message or write it down in our secret logging diary.
Raising exceptions in Python is super easy! Just use the
raise keyword and specify the error type, like this:
raise ValueError("Argument s.jerrynsh.com/UcFDnviQ is an invalid URL.")
Let's dive into the world of error handling in Python where I will share some common bad practices to avoid.
- Never use bare
- Stop raising generic
- Avoid catching using
- Log, don't
1. Do not use bare
The first rule of thumb is to absolutely avoid using bare
The use of bare except catches all exceptions indiscriminately – even the ones that you didn't expect and can crash your program (e.g.
KeyboardInterrupt. Check out the Python exception hierarchy). Furthermore, it doesn't give us any exceptions objects to inspect.
Here’s an example of using bare except, which is not recommended:
So, what’s wrong with using bare
Catching every exception could cause our application to fail without us really knowing why. This is a horrible idea as it makes our code harder to maintain as bugs can be hidden behind an unspecific exception handler.
Let's say you're building a feature that lets users upload PDF files. You put a try-except block around that code and use bare except.
Below, we catch a generic exception saying the file upload failed no matter what the actual problem is:
Now, no matter what the problem is (like the user not having the right permissions or having issues sending notifications), the user will just get a generic error message saying the file upload failed.
Imagine the user uploads a file, but it's an image file instead of a PDF. They keep trying and trying, but keep getting the same error message. They might start thinking, "This app is trash! The file is right there and it still won't upload!"
So, how do we fix this situation? Easy – introduce specific exception classes!
Instead of catching all exceptions with bare except, catch only the specific exceptions you expect to occur. Using our example above, we can introduce
UserPermissionError just to name a few.
This way, you can handle the problems you know about, and let all the other exceptions bubble up to a higher-level error-handling mechanism.
2. Stop using
Secondly, we should avoid raising a generic
Exception in Python because it tends to hide bugs.
Here's another example that you should avoid using:
While there are plenty of ways to write bad code, this is one of the worst anti-patterns known as error hiding.
In my experience, this pattern has stood out as being the greatest drain on developer productivity.
Again, use specific exception classes.
We should always plan and figure out what can break and what exceptions are expected to be thrown.
For instance, if we’re working with a database call to fetch a user profile with an email, we should expect that the email might not exist and handle it accordingly.
In this scenario, we can raise a custom
UserDoesNotExist error and prompt our users to try again, allowing our app to positively recover from the exception.
Here’s a very basic example of how to raise a custom user-defined exception in Python:
class UserDoesNotExist(Exception): """Raised when user does not exist""" pass
Reuse existing exceptions appropriately
Before writing our custom user-defined exceptions, we should always check if the framework or library that we use has built-in exceptions that meet our use case.
In short, we should only catch errors that we are interested in with a specific exception that semantically fits our use case.
3. Avoid using
This closely ties back to the previous point.
As developers, we tend to wrap our function code with a try-except block on autopilot mode using
Exception (or worse, bare except). We love doing this because we know that there is always a chance of exceptions being thrown.
Gotta catch 'em all, right? No.
In the example above, it means that we will catch everything. Including exceptions that we cannot or perhaps should not recover from.
Finally, here’s a better example of how to properly handle an exception:
But I don’t know what exceptions to use
Understandably, it’s very unlikely that we are always prepared for every possible exception.
In such cases, some people suggest that we should at least catch them with an
Exception as it won't include things like
KeyboardInterrupt, which will terminate our app.
Still, I’d argue that we should spend the time to figure out what the exceptions are. When catching generic exceptions becomes a habit, it becomes a slippery slope.
Here’s another good example of why we should not catch generic exceptions.
4. Refrain from passing in
When designing an app, there might be specific exceptions where we are completely fine without doing anything.
However, the worst possible thing a developer can do is the following:
Using a bare
except block to catch all exceptions (
except Exception:) means that if there are multiple errors in the code, the second error will be obscured.
This is because the first error will always be caught and the program will exit the
try block, preventing the second error from being detected.
If we’re just passing an
except statement, it’s a good sign that we aren’t really prepared for the exception that we are catching. Perhaps it’s a good time to rethink and refactor.
Log, don’t pass!
Nevertheless, if we don’t have to do anything about the exception, we should at least use a more specific exception while also logging the exception.
Besides considering including some recovery code, we can also add a comment to inform other developers about the use case.
The bottom line is, we should steer away from passing in except blocks unless explicitly desired. Again, this is usually a bad sign.
Ultimately, we should log the exception to a monitoring system so that we at least have a log of what actually went wrong.
To summarize everything we went through in this article, we should:
- Never use bare
- Stop raising generic
- Stop catching generic
- Avoid just passing in
In most situations, it’s often better for the app to fail at the point of an exception rather than having our app continue to behave in weird unexpected ways. Hence, it’s best to catch only the exceptions that we know and intend to handle.
# Do: def fetch_user_profile(id): try: user = get_user_profile(id) if not user: raise UserDoesNotExist("User ID does not exist.") except UserDoesNotExist as e logger.exception(e) raise
If you're interested in diving deeper into Python exception handling patterns and best practices, check out Python Exception Handling Patterns and Best Practices. In that post, we explore when to catch and re-raise an exception, when to raise a new exception, when to chain exceptions, and when to avoid using each of these techniques.
That’s all! Happy coding!