Regarded as an obscure feature by some, the
with statement in Python is often only used when dealing with file operations. Below is an example to read and write a file with Python's built-in
with open('hello.txt', 'w') as f: data = f.read() f.write('Hello Python!')
For the most part, all people knew was that using the
with statement is the preferred way to manage files rather than using the
The fact is, most people couldn't be bothered enough to peek behind the scene of what is happening behind the scenes. Here's a tip, the underlying protocol is what is known as a context manager.
Honestly, who could be bothered without answering "why should we ever use it?". To me, it was all magic.
Today, let's talk about when and why we should use a context manager in Python.
- To avoid leaving any files or database connections open as they are limited
- Context manager allows us to better manage these resources by telling an object what to do when created or destroyed
- Using the
withstatement allows us to reduce code duplication
- How to use context managers
If I were to summarize it, it would be just two words: resource management.
When building any applications, it's common for us to use resources like file operations and database connections. Here's a key takeaway, these resources are limited.
Oftentimes, we would need to "release" these resources after using them. As an example, whenever we open a file from our filesystem, we need to explicitly close the file when we are done using it.
Don't leave files or resources open
Why is that bad? Leaving files or stateful resources open unnecessarily is bad for the following reasons (source):
- They may consume limited system resources, such as file descriptors. Code that deals with many such objects may exhaust those resources unnecessarily if they’re not returned to the system promptly after use.
- Holding files open may prevent other actions such as moving or deleting them, or unmounting a filesystem.
- Files and sockets that are shared throughout a program may inadvertently be read from or written to after logically being closed. If they are closed, attempts to read or write from them will raise exceptions, making the problem known sooner.
So, what is the
with statement or context manager good for?
Sure, there is nothing wrong with calling
session.close() every time we are done with our database transaction in
Nor there is anything wrong with having to call the built-in
close method every single time we are done reading and writing a file.
# Poor Example # ------------ f = open('hello.txt', 'w') f.write('Hello Python!') f.close()
As you can already tell, the example given above is quite verbose. Now, imagine doing it in every single part of your codebase (gross, I know).
Besides, there's a good chance that a poor, tired developer might just forget to close the file (or a database connection) after using it.
Hence, opening a file using the
with statement is generally recommended. Using
with statements helps you to write more expressive code while avoiding resource leaks.
# Good Example # ------------ with open('hello.txt', 'w') as f: f.write('Hello Python!')
Resource management can be achieved by using context managers in Python. In essence, context managers help to facilitate proper handling of resources, providing users mechanism for setup and teardown of resources easily.
To reiterate in layman's terms, context managers allow you to control what to do when objects are created or destroyed.
3 Ways To Use Context Managers
There are several ways to create a reusable context manager in Python. In this section, I am going to run through several examples of how you can create context managers in Python.
For the first 2 examples, let's create a simple custom context manager to replace the built-in
open function in Python.
Please note that in practice, we should always use any built-in methods or context manager that is provided by Python.
1. Class based
The classic example would be creating a Python class for your context manager. By default, every context manager class must contain these three Dunder methods:
These methods will be executed sequentially as shown above. Please refer to the comments in the code example below for a more detailed explanation.
The code below can only serve as an example and should not be used to replace the use of the built-in
class CustomFileHandlerContextManager: """ A custom context manager used for handling file operations """ def __init__(self, filename, mode): print('__init__ method is called.') self.filename = filename self.mode = mode self.file = None def __enter__(self): print('__enter__ method is called.') self.file = open(self.filename, self.mode) return self.file def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, exc_traceback): print('__exit__ method is called.') self.file.close() # NOTE: So that we can use `CustomFileHandlerContextManager('hello.txt', 'w') as f` def main(): with CustomFileHandlerContextManager('hello.txt', 'w') as f: # __init__ and __enter__ is called f.write('Hello! I am not Tom!') print('Do something else in the statement body.') # __exit__ is called upon exception or end of the `with` statement assert f.closed is True # Proof that the file is closed :) if __name__ == '__main__': main() # Output: # __init__ method is called. # __enter__ method is called. # Do something else in the statement body. # __exit__ method is called.
2. Generator based
Another popular alternative to writing a context manager is to use the built-in
contextlib library in Python. It is my preferred way of creating a custom context manager.
As an overview,
contextlib provides us a set of utilities for common operations involving the
contextlib, we can omit writing a Python class along with the required Dunder methods for our custom context managers.
import contextlib @contextlib.contextmanager def custom_file_handler(file_name, file_mode): file = open(file_name, file_mode) yield file # NOTE: So that we can use `custom_file_handler('hello.txt', 'w') as f` file.close() # Anything after yield will act is if it's in the __exit__ def main(): with custom_file_handler('test.txt', 'w') as f: f.write('Hello, I am Jerry! This is a generator example.') print('Do something else in the statement body.') assert f.closed is True # Proof that the file is closed :) if __name__ == '__main__': main()
3. Use built-in context managers
Generally speaking, we should avoid re-inventing the wheel. We should always opt for using any available built-in context managers if there were made available.
from sqlalchemy import create_engine from sqlalchemy.exc import ProgrammingError from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker engine = create_engine('postgresql://jerry:[email protected]/') Session = sessionmaker(engine) session = Session() try: session.add(some_object) session.add(some_other_object) except ProgrammingError as e: logger.exception(e) session.rollback() raise else: session.commit()
Instead of having to call
session.commit() every single time across numerous functions, we can instead use the built-in session as a context manager.
Here's a better example where we can use context manager with
from sqlalchemy import create_engine from sqlalchemy.exc import ProgrammingError from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker engine = create_engine('postgresql://jerry:[email protected]/') db_session = sessionmaker(engine) # We can now construct a session which includes begin(), commit(), rollback() all at once with db_session.begin() as session: session.add(some_object) session.add(some_other_object) # Commits the transaction, closes the session auto-magically! Cool!
with statement here makes our code looks much, much cleaner.
If you have made it this far, awesome! In summary, here's what we've learned:
- We should not leave any stateful resources (files, database connections, sockets) open unnecessarily as they are limited.
- Python's context manager allows us to better manage these resources by telling an object what to do when created or destroyed.
withstatement helps to encapsulate the standard use of
elsewhen it comes to exception handling.
- The use of a context manager allows us to reduce code duplication.
Using Python's context manager with the
with statement is a great choice if your code has to deal with the opening and closing of a file or database connection.
You could probably refactor some part of your codebase to use context manager with the
with statement as well.
Personally, my favorite part of using context managers is that it allows us to simplify some common resource management patterns. Context managers abstract their functionality, thus allowing them to be refactored out and reused repeatedly.
That is all! Thank you for reading!